Dielectric and Electrical Properties of Poly (?-Caprolactone)/ Organomodified Clay Bionanocomposites Prepared in Open Air by in Situ Polymerization
Dielectric and electrical properties of bio-nanocomposites based on poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL) with different amounts of organomodified montmorillonite clay (MMT-ODA) were investigated by broadband dielectric spectroscopy in the frequency range from 1Hz to 1MHz and in the temperature range from -100 to 25°C. These nanocomposites were prepared by in situ Ring Opening polymerization of ?-caprolactone in open air by using titanium alkoxide as a catalyst. Due to the semicrystalline structure of PCL, the high number of modes and its overlap, the relaxation patterns observed on dielectric spectra were complicated. These relaxation data were modeled using the H-N empirical equation with the contribution of conductivity. The local dynamics of PCL were unaffected by the increase of nano-clay amount, in agreement with the DSC values of glass transition temperature. The PCL/MMT-ODA 3 wt% exhibited the lowest value of dielectric strength, indicating the strongest adhesion between PCL matrix and organo-modified clay. As for PCL/MMT-ODA 5 wt%, the presence of agglomerate made the adhesion between PCL and MMT-ODA very weak. The obtained findings were congruent FTIR and XRD results. The electrical conductivity of PCL was analysed according to the Jonscher’s law. The obtained exponent s values referred to three models corresponding to different temperature ranges.
Usman MS, Ibrahim NA, Shameli K, Zainuddin N, Wan Yunnus WMZ; Copper nanoparticles mediated by chitosan: Synthesis and characterizationvia chemical methods, Molecules 2012, 17:14928.
Ahmad MB, Gharayebi Y, Salit MS, Hussein MZ, Shameli K; Comparison of in situ polymerization and solution-dispersion techniques in the preparation of polyimide/montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposites, Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12:6040.
Ahmad MB, Lim JJ, Shameli K, Ibrahim NA, Tay MY; Synthesis of silver nanocomposites in chitosan, gelatin and chitosan/gelatin bionanocomposites by a chemical reducing agent and their characterization, Molecules 2011, 16:7237.
Shameli K, Ahmad MB, Shabanzadeh P, Al-Mulla EAJ, Zamanian A, Abdollahi Y, Jazayeri SD, Elli M, Jalilian FA, Haroun RZ; Effect of curcuma longa tuber powder on size of silver nanoparticles prepared by green method, Res. Chem. Intermed. 2013, 40:1313.
Bordes P, Pollet E, Avérous L; Nano-composites: biodagradable polyester/nanoclay systems, Prog. Polym. Sci. 2009, 34:125.
Dong Y, Bhattacharyya D; Effects of clay type, clay/compatibiliser content and matrix viscosity on the mechanical properties of polypropylene/organoclay nanocomposites, Compos Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. 2008, 39:1177.
Calcagno CIW, Mariani CM, Teixeira SR, Mauler RS; The role of the MMT on the morphology and mechanical properties of the PP/PET blends, Compos. Sci. Technol. 2008, 68:2193.
Santos KS, Liberman SA, Oviedo MAS, Mauler RS; Optimization of the mechanical properties of polupropylene-based nanocomposite via the addition of a combination of organoclays, Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. 2009, 40:1199.
Nishida H, Tokiwa Y; Distribution of poly(?-hydroxy-butyrate) and poly(?-caprolactone) aerobic degrading microorganisms in different environments, J. Environ. Polym. Degrad. 1993, 1:227.
Grimau M, Laredo E, Pérez MC, Bello A; Study of dielectric relaxation modes in poly( ?-caprolactone): Molecular weight, water sorption and merging effects, J. Chem. Phys. 2001, 114:6417.
Bello A, Laredo E, Grimau M; Comparison of analysis of dielectric apectra of PCL in the ?* and the M* formalism, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 2007, 353:4283.
Woo HJ, Majid SR, Arof AK; Conduction and thermal properties of a proton conducting polymer electrolyte based on poly(?-caprolactone), Solid. State Ionics 2011, 199-200:14.
Kevin AM, Hongyi Y, Alamgir K, Chad RS; Polymer chain dynamics in intercalated poly(?-caprolactone)/nanoplatelet blends, Macromolecules 2013, 46:2235.
Avella M, Bondioli F, Cannillo V, Pace ED, Errico ME, Ferrari AM, Focher B, Malinconico M; Poly (?-caprolactone)-based nanocomposites: influence of compatibilization on properties of Poly(?-caprolactone)-silica nanocomposites, Comp. Sci. and Tech. 2006, 66:886.
Sengwa RJ, Choudhary S, Sankhla S; Dielectric properties of montmorillonite clay filled poly( vinyl alcohol)/poly( ethylene oxide) blend nanocomposites, Compos. Sci. Technol. 2010, 70:1621.
Elghaoui H, Raihane M, Rhouta B, Bitinis N, Carlmark A, Arroyo M, Verdejo R, Lopez-Manchado MA, Lahcini M; Bismuth complex catalysts for the in situ preparation of polycaprolactone/silicate bionanocomposites, Polym. Inter. 2014, 63:709.
Nirmala R, Nam KT, Park DK, Woo-il B, Navamathavan R, Kim HY; Structural, thermal, mechanical and bioactivity evaluation of silver-loaded bovine bone hydroxyapatite grafted poly([epsilon]-caprolactone) nanofibers via electrospinning, Surface and Coating Technology 2010, 205:174.
Woo HJ, Arof AK; Vibrational studies of flexible solid polymer electrolyte based on PCL-EC incorporated with proton conducting NH4SCN, Spectroch. Act. Part A: Molec. and Biomolec. Spectros. 2016, 161:44.
Elzein T, Nasser-Eddine M, Delaite C, Bistac S, Dumas P; FTIR study of polycaprolactone chain organization at interfaces, J. Collo. and Inter. Sci. 2004, 273:381.
Ghasemi-Mobarakeh L, Prabhakaran MP, Morshed M, Nasr-Esfahani MH, Ramakrishna S; Bio-functionalized PCL nanofibrous scaffolds for nerve tissue engineering, Mater. Sci. and Eng. C 2010, 30:1129.
Then YY, Ibrahim NA, Yunnus WMZ; Enhancement of tensile strength and flexibility of polycaprolactone/tapioca starch blends by octadecylamine modified clay, J. Polym. Environ. 2011, 19:535.
Emad A, Al-Mulla J; A new biopolymer-based polycaprolactone/starch modified clay nanocomposite, Cellulose Chem. Technol. 2014, 48:515.
Salehiyan R, Yussuf AA, Hanani NF, Hassan A, Akbari A; Polylactic acid/polycaprolactone nanocomposite: influence of montmorillonite and impact modifier on mechanical, thermal and morphological properties, J. of Elast. and Plast. 2015, 47:69.
Yahiaoui F, Benhacine F, Ferfera-Harrar H, Habi A, Hadj-Hamou AS, Grohens Y; Development of antimicrobial PCL/nanoclay nanocomposite films with enhanced mechanical and water vapor barrier properties for packaging applications, Polym. Bull. 2014, 72:235.
Lepoittevin B, Devalckenaere M, Pantoustier N, Alexandre M, Kubies D, Calberg C, Jerome R, Dubois P; Poly (?-caprolactone)/clay nanocomposites prepared by melt intercalation : mechanical, thermal and rheological properties, Polym. 2002, 43:4017.
Labidi S, Azema N, Perrin D, Cuesta JML; Organo-modified montmorillonite/ poly(?-caprolactone) nanocomposites prepared by melt intercalation in a twin-screw extruder, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 2010, 95:382.
Rittigstein P, Torkelson JM; Polymer-nanoparticle interfacial interactions in polymer nanocomposites: confinement effects on glass transition temperature and suppression of physical aging, J. Polym. Sci. Part B Polym. Phys. 2002, 44:2935.
Hammami H, Arous M, lagache M, Kallel A; Study of the interfacial MWS relaxation by dielctric spectroscopy in unidirectional PZT fibers/epoxy resin composites, J. Allo. and Comp. 2007, 430:1.
Wurm A, Soliman R, Schick C; Early stages of polymer crystallization- a dielectric study, 44 (2003) 7467.
Tsangaris GM, Psarras GC; The dielectric response of a polymeric three-component composite, J. Mater. Sci. 1999, 34:2151.
Kremer F, Schonhals A; Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy, 1st ed.; Springer-Verlag: New York (2003).
Ladhar A, Arous M, Boufi S, Kallel A; Molecular dynamics of poly ( styrene-co-2-ethyl hexylacrylate) copolymer/ cellulose nanocrystals nanocomposites investigated by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy : Effect of the silane content, J. of Mol. Liq. 2016, 224:515.
Arous M, Ben Amor I, Boufi S, Kallel A; Experimental study on dielectric relaxation in alfa fiber reinforced epoxy composites, J. of Appl. Polym. Sci. 2007, 106:3631.
Ghallabi Z, Rekik H, Boufi S, Arous M, Kallel A; Effect of the interface treatement on the dielectric behavior of composite materials of unsaturated polyester reinforced by alfa fiber, J. Non-Cryst. Solid. 2010, 356:684.
Chen RH, Chen LF, Chia CT; Impedance spectroscopic studies on congruent LiNbO3 single crystal, J. Phys. Condens. Mat. 2007, 19:086225.
Ortiz-Serna P, Carsí M, Redondo-Foj B, Sanchis MJ; Electrical conductivity of natural rubber–cellulose II nanocomposites, J. Non-Cryst. Solid. 2014, 405:180.
Ben Bechir M, Karoui K, Tabellout M, Guidara K, Ben Rhaiem A; Alternative current conduction mechanisms of organic-inorganic compound [N(CH3)3H]2ZnCl4, J. of Appl. Phys. 2014, 115:153708.
Gudmundsson JT, Svavarsson HG, Gudjonsson S, Gislason HP; Frequency-dependent conductivity in lithium-diffused and annealed GaAs, Phys. B 2003, 340:324.
Megdiche M, Perrin-pellegrino C, Gargouri M; Conduction mechanism study by overlapping large-polaron tunnelling model in SrNiP2O7 ceramic compound, J. Alloys Compd. 2014, 584:209.
Long AR; Frequency-dependent loss in amorphous semiconductors, Adv. Phys. 1982, 31:553.
Mollah S, Som KK, Bose K, Chaudri BK; AC conductivity in Bi4Sr3Ca3CuyOx (y=0-5) and Bi4Sr3Ca3zLizCu4Ox (z=0.1-1.0) semiconducting oxide glasses, J. Appl. Phys. 1993, 74:931.
Ravi M, Song S, Gu K, Tang J, Zhang Z; Electrical properties of biodegradable poly (?-caprolactone): Lithium thiocyanate complexed polymer electrolyte films, Mater. Sci. and Eng. B 2015, 195:74.
Funke K; Ion transport in fast ion condutors- spectra and models, Sol. Stat. Ion. 1997, 96:27.
Le Meins JM, Bohnke O, Courbion G; Ionic conductivity of crystalline and amorphous Na3Al2(PO4)2F3, Sol. Stat. Ion. 1998, 111:67.
Copyright (c) 2019 JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN PHYSICS
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.