JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN PHYSICS Interested in submitting to this journal? We recommend that you review About the Journal page for the journal's section policies, as well as the Author Guidelines. Authors need to register with the journal prior to submitting or, if already registered, can simply log in and begin the five-step process. en-US JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN PHYSICS 2347-3487 <p>Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</p> Optical Absorption in Incoherent and Coherent States of a Quantum Hall System <p>In connection with recent studies of extremely long-living spin-cyclotron excitations (actually magneto-excitons) in a quantum Hall electron gas, we discuss contribution to the light-absorption related to the presence of a magneto-exciton ensemble in this purely electronic system. Since the weakly interacting excitations have to obey the Bose-Einstein statistics, one can expect appearance of a coherent state in the ensemble. A comparative analysis of both incoherent and coherent cases is done. Conditions for a phase transition from the incoherent state to the coherent one are discussed.</p> Sergey Dickmann ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-06 2018-11-06 15 5917 5926 10.24297/jap.v15i0.7844 On The Discrete Nature of The Gravitational Force <p>The standard model of particle physics has been extremely successful in unifying the strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces through the unitary product group SU(3) X SU(2) X U(1); and general relativity has been equally accurate in describing gravitation. No attempt thus far, however, has managed to incorporate general relativity into the standard model—or any other model. And while no attempt will, herein, be made to accomplish that endeavor, perhaps some of the insights will constitute a helpful step in that direction. <br> In the following pages, gravitation and electromagnetism are looked at in new and different ways.</p> Dewey Lewis Boatmun ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-06 2018-11-06 15 5927 5942 10.24297/jap.v15i0.7836 Formation of Hierarchical 2D-Mos2 Nanostructures over Carbon Fabric as Binder Free Electrode Material for Supercapacitor Applications <p style="margin: 8px 0px; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%; text-justify: inter-ideograph;"><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">Carbon fabrics are the new generation promising electrode materials for super capacitors owing to their high electrical conductivity, </span><span style="background: white; margin: 0px; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">high chemical stability and low thermal expansion. In this work, 2D-MoS<sub>2</sub> nanostructures have been successfully deposited over the commercially available carbon fabric by hydrothermal approach, using silicontungstic acid as an additive. </span><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">MoS<sub>2 </sub>nanostructures – carbon fabric was<span style="background: white; margin: 0px;"> broadly characterized using XRD, FESEM and Raman Spectroscopy. XRD patterns </span>indicated that the fabricated MoS<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles can be indexed to hexagonal (2H) and rhombohedral (3R) phases. <span style="background: white; margin: 0px;">FESEM images revealed the formation of hierarchical 2D MoS<sub>2</sub> nanosheets arranged in a nanosphere like morphology over the carbon fabric. </span>The <span style="background: white; margin: 0px;">electrochemical behavior of the </span>MoS<sub>2 </sub>- carbon fabric and <span style="background: white; margin: 0px;">commercially available bare carbon fabric were studied <span style="margin: 0px;">using cyclic voltammetry analysis with different scan rates. </span></span>The MoS<sub>2</sub>-carbon fabric </span><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">exhibited an excellent electrochemical performance with a </span><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">specific capacitance of 441</span><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;"> F/g at a scan rate of 10mV/s. </span><span style="background: white; margin: 0px; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">The good cyclic behavior with symmetric charging/discharging curves, constant specific capacitance for longer scan rates, suggesting that the MoS<sub>2</sub>- carbon fabric electrode is a potential electrode material for high power applications.</span></p> Selvaraj shanthi Yasuhiro Hayakawa Suru Ponnusamy Hiroya Ikeda Chellamuthu Muthamizhchelvan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-03 2018-12-03 15 5943 5949 10.24297/jap.v15i0.7863 Unexplained Temporal Effects Recorded by The Torsind at Syzygies <p>Observations of the torsion balances` and the torsind`s behavior at the moments of the solar and lunar eclipses, the transit of Venus, the occultation of Venus by the Moon were performed. It is shown that in the most cases the devices reaction to these phenomena either outstripped or lagged behind the actually observed phenomenon. The statement is substantiated that the torsind reacts to non-electromagnetic radiation of an unknown nature, arising in the outer space surrounding the Earth.</p> Alexander F. Pugach ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-03 2018-12-03 15 5950 5969 10.24297/jap.v15i0.7877 Investigation of Microstructure and Creep Properties of Sn-xSb Solder Alloys up to Peritectic Composition <p>Particle strengthening was studied in Sn-xSb (x=0.5–3.0 wt. %). Tensile deformation behavior of Sn-2.5 wt.% Sb is investigated at temperature ranging (298 - 343K) and under different constant loads ranging (5.1 14.0 MPa). The microstructure characteristics of the tested alloys have been obtained using x-ray diffraction. Morphological studies using optical microscope have been investigated to obtain correlation between the microstructure and mechanical behavior of the alloys. The improved strength is attributed to the uniform distribution of the SnSb intermetallic compound (IMC) inside Sn matrix. Based on the obtained stress exponent (n) and activation energy (Q), it is proposed that the dominant deformation mechanism is dislocation climb over the whole temperature range used.</p> R. Afify Ismail A.M. Yassin B.A. Khalifa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-06 2018-11-06 15 5970 5982 Characterization and Optical Properties of MnO Doped CuO-Containing Phosphate Glass as Absorption Filters <p>In order to demonstrate the intrinsic and extrinsic changes induced by MnO in the phosphate glass network, a glass system of composition 44P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>-38ZnO-2CuO-(16-<em>x</em>)Na<sub>2</sub>O-<em>x</em>MnO (where, <em>x</em> = 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mol%) was prepared using the conventional melt quenching technique. XRD patterns confirmed the non-crystalline nature of the prepared samples. The density and molar volume as a function of MnO content were determined to characterize structure of the obtained glasses. The optical spectroscopic studies of the prepared samples were carried out over (190-1000 nm) spectral range. The prepared samples were found to behave as bandpass filters in the visible region of spectrum. The UV cutoff wavelength was shifted from 308 nm to 352 nm by increasing content of MnO which is very useful in the optical technology requirements such as ultraviolet preventing applications and the protection from UV-LASER. The optical band gap was decreased by increasing content of MnO whilst, the Urbach energy was increased. The decrease in optical band gap was attributed to the progressive increase in non-bridging oxygens (NBOs) concentration with the addition of MnO. The refractive index was found to be enhanced with the addition of MnO by the effect of increase in overall polarizability. However, the optical polarizability was found to be correlated to the chemical composition of the glass. The results reveal the role of MnO as a network modifier in the phosphate glass matrix.</p> Hytham Ahmed Abd El-Ghany ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-04 2018-12-04 15 5983 5996 Application of The Magnus and Fer Expansions to A Perturbative Study of The Time Dependent Jaynes Cummings Model <p>We apply the Magnus and Fer perturbation methods to Jaynes Cummings Model (JCM) with linear time dependence and show that the perturbation methods yield results which are appreciably close to the results obtained by Wei-Norman method, leading to exact solution when the Hamiltonian under consideration is an element of su(2), thus making the perturbation methods important for Hamiltonians for which a method of exact solution is not available.</p> T. Das A. Dasgupta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-06 2018-11-06 15 5997 6017 What is Heat; The Photon is Heat <p>All photons will burn you. How do we describe photons as having different amounts of energy? This paper illustrates photons do not have different amounts of energies, rather different types of energy. The experiment of 1800 provides enough data to be analyzed because it has that third point to question the idea that photons carry different amounts of energy. This paper argues that all photons have equal amounts of energy just different types of energy. The composition of the energy within a photon depends on the frequency of a photon, a lower frequency photon like those represented by infrared can boil water faster than higher frequency blue light. A higher frequency photon like a gamma particle is stopped by lead. Given the nature that heat is from photons we can start thinking of sophisticated thermometers that give us the quality of heat not just the quantity of heat. It is the atmosphere that gives more evidence around the nature of photons, we can understand the cycle of the photon/ photonic cycle/ electromagnetic cycle, allowing us to ponder on deep philosophical meanings, intelligent life is there for universe to sustain itself, as well as ask the question why we are not burning given the nature of low frequency electromagnetic radiation. And for those vigorously looking for habitable planets out there, the idea of the circumstellar habitable zone must change to accommodate the proper understanding of heat.</p> Bhekuzulu Khumalo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-12 2019-01-12 15 6018 6038 10.24297/jap.v15i0.7896 Light’s Quanta Induce The Measurement Paradox <p>We learn from Quantum Mechanics that the observation of the microscopic world, the measurement (M) of a quantum object, i.e. a particle, inexorably modifies the physical system we wish to examine.</p> <p>What happens is that with the M it takes place a reduction of the state vectors, that is the ‘wave function collapse’ of the measured particle.</p> <p>Why does it happen? No one knows.</p> <p>The enigma of the so-called Measurement Paradox, in our opinion, could be solved if we considered that the light quantum(LQ), as suggested by the Principle of Equivalence Mass-Energy, carries out a dynamic-mass equivalent to its energy. The LQ is indispensable to carry out a M.&nbsp;</p> <p>No M can be carried out without using the quantum of light.</p> <p>Calculus show that a photon of the optic band hits an electron with a momentum bigger than the mass of the electron itself.</p> <p>This may explain why the M induces the implosion of the quantum object observed, together with the collapse of its wave function, giving rise to the Measurement Paradox.</p> Antonio Puccini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-06 2018-11-06 15 6039 6055 Investigation of Structural and Magnetic Properties of Multiferroic La1-Xyxfeo3perovskites, Prepared by Citrate Auto-Combustion Technique <p>In this work, we studied the structural and magnetic properties of multiferroic La<sub>1-x</sub>Y<sub>x</sub>FeO<sub>3</sub> perovskites, (x= 0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.25 and 0.3) which synthesized through Sol-gel auto-combustion technique using a citric acid as a fuel. The room temperature synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the all the synthesized samples consisted of the polycrystalline orthorhombic structure perovskites (space group pnma), and tolerance factor confirmed the phase stability of the prepared perovskite system. The Williamson-Hall plot based on synchrotron XRD data were employed to estimate the average particle diameter and varies from 18 nm to 27.8&nbsp;nm. For a deeper insight of the crystal structure, high resolution transmission microscopy imaging (HRTEM) was performed. The estimated values of crystallite size from HRTEM and synchrotron XRD data were coincident. Many of crystallographic parameters and electron density measurements were calculated by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron XRD data. La<sub>1-x</sub>Y<sub>x</sub>FeO<sub>3</sub> perovskite&nbsp;crystals are canted antiferromagnets with a weak ferromagnetism in room temperature. The magnetic properties were gotten through analyzing the magnetization versus temperature M(T) and M(H) hysteresis loop which characterized by a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The molecular structure showed the decrease of the tilting of the octahedra &lt;FeO<sub>6</sub>&gt; with increasing Y content trying to strengthen the ferromagnetic character. Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED) patterns of the investigated samples exhibited spotty ring patterns, confirming the polycrystalline character. The orthoferrite La<sub>1-x</sub>Y<sub>x</sub>FeO<sub>3</sub>&nbsp;crystals are a promising candidate for optical device applications in broad temperature range and high power system.</p> Yehia M. Abbas Ahmed B. Mansour Shehab E. Ali Ahmed H. Ibrahim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-06 2018-11-06 15 6056 6077 Combined Cycle Consisting of Closed Processes Based Cycle Powered by A Reversible Heat Pump that Exceed Carnot Factor <p>This article deals with the task of analysing a feasible reversible combined cycle composed of a heat pump as the primary cycle and a non-condensing mode thermal engine characterized by operating under a closed processes based cycle that work by adding and releasing heat, as the secondary cycle. Two case studies are analysed and compared. According to the results, the case study based on the combination of a heat pump cycle with an organic Rankine cycle, is the paradigm of a reversible 100% efficient combined cycle. The case study based on a heat pump cycle and a reversible heating-cooling based cycle is the paradigm of a super-efficient combined cycle that yields a 1.486 power ratio (PR) or 148.6% efficiency. Further, the case based on a heat pump cycle with a regenerative irreversible heating-cooling based cycle, is the paradigm of energy conversion and energy generation that yields a 1.29 PR or 129% efficiency assuming limited irreversibilities.</p> Ramon Ferreiro Garcia Jose Carbia Carril ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-06 2018-11-06 15 6078 6100 Dielectric and Electrical Properties of Poly (?-Caprolactone)/ Organomodified Clay Bionanocomposites Prepared in Open Air by in Situ Polymerization <p>Dielectric and electrical properties of bio-nanocomposites based on poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL) with different amounts of organomodified montmorillonite clay (MMT-ODA) were investigated by broadband dielectric spectroscopy in the frequency range from 1Hz to 1MHz and in the temperature range from -100 to 25°C. These nanocomposites were prepared by in situ Ring Opening polymerization of ?-caprolactone in open air by using titanium alkoxide as a catalyst. Due to the semicrystalline structure of PCL, the high number of modes and its overlap, the relaxation patterns observed on dielectric spectra were complicated. These relaxation data were modeled using the H-N empirical equation with the contribution of conductivity. The local dynamics of PCL were unaffected by the increase of nano-clay amount, in agreement with the DSC values of glass transition temperature. The PCL/MMT-ODA 3 wt% exhibited the lowest value of dielectric strength, indicating the strongest adhesion between PCL matrix and organo-modified clay. As for PCL/MMT-ODA 5 wt%, the presence of agglomerate made the adhesion between PCL and MMT-ODA very weak. The obtained findings were congruent FTIR and XRD results. The electrical conductivity of PCL was analysed according to the Jonscher’s law. The obtained exponent s values referred to three models corresponding to different temperature ranges.</p> S. Hrichi M. Arous M. Raihane M. Lahcini H. Elghoui F Z. Bouharras A. Kallel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-07 2019-02-07 15 6101 6120 10.24297/jap.v15i0.7905